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Table 1 Reviews on solar still

From: A comprehensive decade review and analysis on designs and performance parameters of passive solar still

S. no.





Tiwari et al. (2003)

Present status, past work, and future potential of solar still

From the economical view point, double slope fibre-reinforced plastic still was found efficient than others

Passive solar stills were concluded more suitable for domestic purposes and active solar stills for commercial applications


Aybar (2007)

Recent studies on solar still

Performance of solar still depends on various design, meteorological and water parameters. Multi-basin, multi-slop and solar still coupled with solar collector were suggested as improved and efficient designs


Murugavel et al. (2008)

Methods to improve the performance of single basin passive solar stills

Orientation and inclination of condensing cover depend on the latitude of the place. Glass and rubber were found most efficient condensing and basin material

Mirrors as reflectors were considered efficient for solar stills


Aybar and Assefi (2009)

Direct and indirect type solar distillation systems

Indirect solar distillation gave higher distillate output but the system is complex, costly and needs high maintenance


Arjunan et al. (2009)

Development techniques and status of solar desalination in India

Solar distillation is considered as the most attractive and reliable solution of fresh water for remote areas and small communities

Cover cooling, lower water depth, absorbing materials, wick, multi basin and tubular still reported to give higher yield


Sampathkumar et al. (2010)

Various types, technological development, modeling, and future scope of active solar still

Energy storing material in stepped solar sill coupled with solar pond results higher yield

Kumar and Tiwari model was concluded the most suitable for evaluating internal heat transfer coefficients


Kaushal and Varun (2010)

Types of solar still

Selection of solar still mainly depends on local and operating conditions


Kabeel and El-Agouz (2011)

Researches and improvement parameters of solar still

Solar still productivity improves with lower water depth, condensing cover inclination equal to latitude of place, with energy storage materials, sun tracking system, reflectors, flat plate collector, and phase change material


Balan et al. (2011)

Passive solar distillation along with design analysis

Wick type solar still was concluded an efficient solar still design

Use of reflectors significantly improves the performance of solar still


Velmurugan and Srithar (2011)

Productivity improvement factors analysis of solar still

Numerous operational parameters such as free surface area of water, water glass temperature difference, and inlet water temperature. Greatly affect the performance of solar still

Use of sponges, fins, still with double glass, collectors, storage tank, wicks, reflectors, condenser, additives, etc. Improves the performance of solar still


Ali et al. (2011)

Techno-economical review of various indirect solar desalination techniques

Indirect solar desalination could provide a solution to fulfill the demand of potable water in an economical way


Ayoub and Malaeb (2012)

Critical review on developments in solar still desalination systems

Cost analysis

Intensive research is needed in material optimization, system reliability, design sustainability of solar desalination system without affecting its basic advantages


Compain (2012)

Different desalination technologies with solar energy

Combination of most common water desalination technologies with solar energy gives low cost, cleaner, efficient and fuel energy replacement techniques


Shatat et al. (2013)

Need, challenges and various techniques of water desalination process

Development and opportunity of solar water desalination technology

Low cost, inexhaustible and clean solar energy combined with different water desalination technologies provides a better alternative for water desalination in economics and environmental aspects


Sivakumar and Sundaram (2013)

Design, operational and meteorological parameters of solar still

Productivity of solar stills greatly enhances by energy storing materials, sun tracking systems, condensing cover cooling, reflectors, wick materials, stills with collectors, solar pond, and cooling tower

Performance of still is highly dependent on location and experimental conditions


Ranjan and Kaushik (2013)

Energy, exergy and thermo-economic analysis of solar distillation system

Energy and exergy efficiency of the conventional solar system was observed to be in the range of 20–46 and 4–5 % and can be increased up to 62 and 8.5 %, respectively. Per liter cost of distilled water was estimated in the range of US $ 0.014–0.237

For higher productivity, efficiency and economical point the solar distillation system must be integrated with other solar devices


Murugavel et al. (2013)

Development and efficiency improvement methods of inclined type solar still

Reflectors, water flowing over condensing surface; phase change materials and wick greatly enhance the productivity of the inclined still


Manikandan et al. (2013)

Status and analysis of various wick type solar stills

Use of wick in the still is considered as an efficient and economic technique to improve the productivity


Xiao et al. (2013a)

Design developments, analysis and heat and mass transfer models for solar still

Under different climatic conditions, different design guidelines provided for yield improvement of solar stills

Dunkle’s relation was preferred for Grashof number less than 2.51 × 105 and for greater values Adhikari’s correlation was recommended

Future research was suggested for the development in solar still


Khayet (2013)

Economics, energy consumption and water production cost analysis

Development and optimization of solar desalination by membrane distillation can reduce energy consumption and water production cost


Muftah et al. (2014)

Study of performance parameters and cost analysis of solar still

Distillation productivity can be enhanced for a particular location through the operating and design conditions

Almost all parameters which affect the productivity of basin type solar stills were reviewed except some important parameters like effect of vacuum technology and use of nanoparticles


Sharon and Reddy (2015)

Various solar energy integrated desalination technologies

Solar desalination was considered as an efficient, environment friendly fresh water solution

Present and future work related to development in solar desalination technologies was suggested along with their pros and cons, problems and remedies, economic and environmental impact


Kabeel (2015)

Performance improvement techniques of stepped solar still

Stepped solar still was concluded as an effective and efficient solar still device

Use of reflectors, thermal storage medium, glass cover cooling, sun tracking, wicks with stepped solar still highly improve its efficiency

Tray/step depth, width, shape and design significantly affect the performance of stepped solar still


Yadav and Sudhakar (2015)

Different domestic solar still designs along with performance and economic analysis

Solar still with their different designs was considered as an attractive solution to fulfill domestic fresh water demand but still needs efficient and optimized domestic designs to make the technology commercialized


Gugulothu et al. (2015)

Thermal energy storage in solar distillation system

Latent heat storage was considered efficient than sensible heat storage. Combination of sun tracking system and energy storage with solar stills is recommended for future work


Durkaieswaran and Murugavel (2015)

Special designs of single basin passive solar still

Higher surface area of solar collector can increase the productivity of solar still. It is concluded that there is a scope of improvement in the existing designs to make the system efficient and economical


El-Sebaii and El-Bialy (2015)

Advanced designs of solar desalination systems with cost analysis

Double basin, triple basin and stepped solar stills with reflectors gave higher distillate output with lowest production cost


Kumar et al. (2015)

Single and multi-effect passive and active solar stills system with their merits and demerits

Solar radiation intensity, ambient conditions, condensing cover cooling, flat plate external reflector, and salinity were considered important parameters of solar still

Research work on multi-effect and multi-stage evacuated stills was suggested for future scope of improvement